Facts about Natural Gas
Natural gas has a lot of benefits compared with oil, other gases or coal produced electricity. The CO2 emissions are significantly reduced by about 25%, and there are many other positive effects. The emissions of NOX is reduced by about 90%. The emissions of sulphide, dust and particles are eliminated. This is the reason we can safely say that changing to Natural gas from any fossil fuel contributes to a better environment, locally and globally.
Natural chemical advantagesFacts about Natural gas – Natural gas consists mostly of methane – CH2. When combusted the methane molecule reacts with two water molecules and transforms to a molecule of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 2 water molecules and 891 kJ of energy. What looks like exhausts from combustion of natural gas is only water vapour and CO2.
Other fuels like propane and oil products are heavier and consists of molecules with more carbon atoms. Propane (C3H8) has three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms, the more carbon in the molecule the higher CO2 emission when combusted.
As the lightest/simplest hydrocarbon, natural gas has lover emissions than all other hydrocarbons. Generally, the emissions are 25% lower using natural gas compared to light fuel oil.
Less risk with natural gasThe flammability with emissions of natural gas is low. Natural gas require a gas/air mix of about 5-15% to be flammable. Lower or higher mixtures will not combust. In addition natural require a spark to ignite, the self-ignition temperature is 540 °C (1004 °F).
If there is a LNG leak the fluid/gas will be heavier than air as long as the temperature is lower than 100 °C (212 °F). It will quickly vapour to a gas-state, rise and mix with air to a non-flammable mixture. Other and heavier gases will normally fall and stay close to ground where they can form a flammable area.
In case of a leak or LNG spill there could temporary be flammable areas over the leak/spill. Therefore it is important to control all sources of ignition.
Natural gas Is not toxicNatural gas have no colour or smell and is not toxic. A natural gas leak could still influence the amount of available oxygen when in a closed space. LNG could be dangerous if someone comes into direct contact with the supercooled gas. Generally, natural gas is considered a very safe fuel, and is therefore often used as a household gas.
Local effects in case of spills/emissionsA leak of natural gas or LNG will have minimal effect on plant and animal life, with exception of anything in direct contact with LNG/gas in a supercooled state. This in contrast to oil spills from shipping, transport or oil-tanks that have a massive negative environmental impact and could lead to large costs.
Still, leaks of natural gas should not occur. Barents NaturGass therefore implement safe operation procedures and use the most modern and advanced equipment available.
Lower calorific values for different energy carriers
13,6 kWh/kg 10,4 kWh/Sm3
LIGHT FUEL OIL
11,9 kWh/kg 10,9 kWh/l
HEAVY FUEL OIL
11,3 kWh/kg 11,0 kWh/l
12,0 kWh/kg 8,8 kWh/l
33,3 kWh/kg 3,5 kWh/Nm3
FIREWOOD (18% humidity)
for natural gas
-162 oC with 1 atm pressure
Density (gas state)
density (liquid state)
450 kg/m3 (on 1 atm pressure and – 162 oC)
Lower calorific value (gas state)
37 MJ/Sm3 – 10,3 kWh/Sm3
Lower calorific value in liquid state (LNG)
5,8 kWh/liter (5,8 MWh/m3)
82 – 95% (mol)
Self ignition temperature